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Lesson Plan and Aplication of Communicative Language Teaching

Penulis : citrapriski on Wednesday, July 10, 2013 | 7:33 PM

1.      Lesson plan (with teaching material)
Target Audience
Senior High School Students
Objective (Aim)
To foster students’ speaking skills and in the primary EFL classroom by creating
a ‘real-life’ communicative setting
Lost in London: Asking and Giving Directions

Citra Priski Abadi
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Durations / Meetings
45 Minutes / 2 Meetings
Students will be able to;
1. Develop student’s speaking skills
2. Encourage asking and giving directions in English
3. Develop student’s speaking micro skills
4. Raise students communicative skills
5. Achieve skills integration
6. Enhance students collaboration
a central London map, You-tube videos, a lap-top, worksheets

Fist Meeting:  ‘Lost in London: Asking and Giving Directions’

A.      Pre-speaking stage
Step 1:
  1. The teacher introduces the topic by showing the Students a map of central London and asking questions e.g.
What’ this?
Have you ever needed or used a map?
 Why do we usually need a map?

  1. Predicting/Guessing:
Students are asked to make guesses about the purpose of the lesson, e.g. What are we going to talk about today?

Ø This warm-up task aims to
  1. activate prior world knowledge and relevant content schemata (related to target culture awareness) and
  2. motivate Ls by creating expectations
1 Min
Step 2:
             Students are invited to listen to a ‘real-life’ dialogue derived from a You-tube video[1]  in which two interlocutors are talking about directions: the man asking for directions is a foreigner / tourist lost in the capital of Britain and his interlocutor is British able to give the directions needed based on a map.
Ø To provide Students with the necessary language input
Ø To make Ls active listeners
Ø To integrate listening with writing
2 Min
Step 3:
          Students are asked to watch the
You-tube video with the subtitles in order to check their answers on their own first; then the teacher gives feedback.
Ø To motivate them through You-tube technology
Ø To create a ‘real-life’ context
Ø To encourage self-correction
2 Min
Step 4:
         Students are also provided with pictures to help them understand the meaning and use of key imperatives for giving directions.
Ø To practice language related to asking and giving directions
Ø To practice imperatives

5 Min
B) While-speaking stage

Step 5:
          Students work in pairs and are provided with two maps. The idea of this task is information gap. Each learner gets a different handout with different buildings marked on the map. The student’s job is to exchange information in order to complete their maps. They should ask Excuse me, how can I get to…? Questions. Some buildings (e.g. Railway Station) are marked on both maps to give students some point of reference. The teacher has to mark X on all the handouts by hand and make sure it’s in the same place on both copies(Student A and
Student B) as the activity won’t work otherwise.
Ø  To make Ls act out a dialogue
Ø  To motivate Ls by visual aids
Ø  Skills integration
Ø  To check comprehension
Ø  To encourage communication
Ø  To engage Ls in a speaking game
Ø  To encourage peer correction

8 min
Step 6:
           The teacher sets the scene: Students imagine they are a group of friends visiting London as tourists but they feel lost and need somebody’s help to continue their sightseeing. Fortunately, they’ve got three maps of central London. To save time, they decide to be divided into 3 groups to ask
directions for three different places of interest; 
  1. The Houses of Parliament,
  2. The Buckingham Palace and
  3. The Tower of London.
           The 3 groups manage to find somebody to ask directions. Two members of the group act out the dialogue to the whole class. To facilitate Ls to carry out the speaking task, the teacher can provide them with a list of helpful expressions and vocabulary for asking and giving directions.
Ø  To consolidate vocabulary for asking & giving directions
Ø  To encourage Students act out a ‘real-life’ dialogue
Ø  To enhance group work
Ø  To create a ‘real-life’ communicative setting
Ø  To promote Students’ interaction
Ø  To develop student speaking skills
Ø  To make Ls realize how to use a map
Ø  Skills integration (listening & speaking)

C) Post-speaking stage

Step 7:
          Each one of the above groups writes a paragraph summarizing the directions for the specific place of interest they were assigned to find. They are asked to use appropriate linking expressions.
Ø  To develop Ls writing skill using the appropriate linking expressions
Ø  Skills integration (writing & listening)
5 Min
Step 8:
          A representative of each group reports the paragraph back to the whole class. While reporting back, the other groups listen carefully to trace the way on their maps and circle the destination.
Ø  To make students active listeners
Ø  To engage students in a speaking game
Ø  To check comprehension
5 Min
Step 9:
              Students are given a self-assessment questionnaire to fill in by Ticking what’s true for them in order to get a lesson feedback as well.
Ø  To provide and receive feedback
1 Min
Step 10:
            Students view a video clip with a relevant song, entitled ‘Follow Directions[2]; they sing following the lyrics in the subtitles and dance all
Ø  To listen & sing
Ø  To practice pronunciation
Ø  To listen, sing and dance for fun
1 Min


Lost in London: Asking and Giving Directions’
A.                                                                                                                                                                                  Pre-speaking stage:
Listen carefully to the dialogue and fill in the following gaps. Then watch the relevant video and pay attention to the English subtitles to check your answers on your own.
             “Asking and giving directions” – Transcript
                        -Excuse me!
-Yes, __________can I help?
-_____________,ehm, can you tell me the to Waterloo Station? I think I’m lost…
-I think you might be, yeah… You’re actually here right in the middle of Hyde Park.
- Oh dear…
- It’s _____________at all! All you need to do is continue___________ on through St James’ Park…
- And then, when you get to the Houses of Parliament, _______________left…
- Hhmmm…
- Then go _______________ the bridge…
- Ok…
- And then it’s first _________________ and you’re there, that’s Waterloo Station.
- Great, ok, so…ehm… Through Hyde Park, and then ___________ at the Houses of Parliament…
- No, no, no, LEFT at the Houses of Parliament!
- Right! (=Ok). ____________ at the Houses of Parliament. Ehm… Cross the bridge…
- That’s it!
- And then… to the _______________?
- First on the right!
- First on the right!
- And that’s Waterloo Station!
- Fantastic! Thank you very much.
- No problem, you’re _____________
- Bye!

B.        While-speaking stage:
B.1. Look at the map below. There are buildings that are not marked on your map, but they are marked on your friend’s map. You are at “X”. Ask your friend how to get there and mark the ten buildings on your map. What question will you ask? What phrases will you use to answer the question?
                        How can I get to …?

                        How can I get to …?

B2.     Simulation Activity: ‘Lost in London: How to get to …?’
1.      You are a group of friends visiting London as tourists and you’ve just visited the British Museum.
2.      At the moment, you feel lost and need somebody’s help to continue your sightseeing. Fortunately, you’ve got three maps of central London. To save time, you decide to be divided into 3 groups to ask directions for three main London sights: a. The Houses of Parliament, b. The Buckingham Palace and c. The Tower of London.
3.      In your groups study the map of central London and prepare a dialogue about asking and giving directions for one of the three different sights.
4.      Two members of your group act out the dialogue to the class.

C.           Post-speaking stage:

C.1.  Work in your groups again and write a paragraph to summarize the directions for the London sight you were assigned to ‘find’ using appropriate linking expressions. Then a representative of each group reports back to the class and the other groups listen carefully to circle the destination ‘tracing’ the way on your maps.
         Tick what’s true for you
Now I can:
Ask directions for a place

Give directions to a place

Act out a dialogue about directions

Take notes while listening to directions

Take turns while acting out a dialogue

Use a map to get to a place

Use imperatives to give directions

Use prepositions of place

Write a paragraph about directions

Work well with my classmates

2.      Application of Communicative Language Teaching
2.1.   Some preparations before class
2.1.1.      Materials
1.      Text-based materials
A typical lesson consists of a theme, a task analysis, for thematic development a practice situation description, a stimulus presentation, comprehension questions and paraphrase exercises.
2.      Task-based material
A variety of games, roles plays, simulations, and task-based communication activities have been prepared to support Communicative Language Teaching classes.
3.      Authentic Materials
Many proponents of Communicative Language Teaching have advocated the use of “authentic” “real-life” materials in the classroom. These might include language based realia, such as signs, magazines, advertisements, and newspapers, or graphic and visual sources around which communicative activities can be built.
2.1.2.       Procedures
Fincocchiaro and Brumfit once propose communicative procedures like this:
1)      Presentation of a brief dialogue proceeded by a motivation and discussion of the function and situation—people, roles, setting, topic and informality of language.
2)      Oral practice of each utterance of the dialog segment.
3)       Questions and answers based on the dialog topics and situation itself.
4)      Questions and answers related to the students’ personal experiences but centered on the dialog theme.
5)      Study one of the basic communicative expressions in the dialog or one of the structures which exemplify the function.
6)      Learners’ discovery of generalizations or rules underlying the functional expression or structure.
7)      Oral recognition, interpretative activities.
8)      Oral production activities.
9)      Sampling of the written homework assignment, if given.
10)  Evaluation of learning (oral only).
How to sequence these things is not the most important. What really effects is the principles to follow. From the above procedures, we summarize as follows:
In a communicative lesson, the teacher should:
a.       Presentation of the topic
b.      Motivation of the students to participate in classroom activities
c.       Discussion of situations and functions
d.      Study, analysis and application of typical structures
e.       Activities related to both the topic and students’ experiences
f.       Evaluation of tasks
2.2.   Using pictures and games in classroom
2.2.1.       Using pictures in classroom
1.      Why use pictures?
By providing a wide range of contexts, students can meet a range of situations and experience that will equip them for real life communication. Specifically, pictures contribute to:
a.       interest and motivation
b.      a sense of the content of the language
2.      Five primary principles of using pictures in class
a.       Easy to prepare
b.      Easy to organize
c.       Interesting
d.      Meaningful and authentic
e.       Sufficient amount of language
3.      Some examples for using pictures
Topic from pictures
a.       Show pictures from inside the book.
b.      Ask the students to tell you as much as they can about the topic of the story.
2.2.2.       Using games in classroom
1.      Why use games?
Language learning is a hard task that can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivated since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.
2.      When to Use Games
Nowadays, games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, a game should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do. Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. They can be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen.
3.      How to Choose Games
a.       A game must be more than just fun.
b.      A game should keep all of the students involved and interested.
c.       A game should encourage students to focus on the use of language rather than on the language itself.
d.      A game should give students a chance to learn, practice, or review specific language material
4.       Some ways to use games:
a.       Picking the apples
b.      Competition
c.       Climbing the ladder
d.      Hunting the match picture
e.       Twenty Questions
f.       Word Magic

      You can create all kinds of appropriate meaningful and flexible games and amusing activities and educational activities are necessary to keep the class enjoyable and create a sense of fun. However, we must be careful that the activities do not last too long or the children will become bored.

5.      References
Book resources:
Littlewood W. (1981). Communicative Language Teaching. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
Byram, Michael. 2000. Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. Taylor & Francis Routledge; New Yok.
Krashen, Stephen D. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition (Language Teaching Methodology). Pergamon Press Inc.
Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching, 3rd Edition-Longman Press.
Internet Sources:

                              Videos resources:

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